Name and adjective. A simple way to describe “The Fantastic Four” from Ranking of the Best Universities in Mexico. Economics of language, which nevertheless faithfully summarizes this year’s results:
The National Autonomous University of Mexico, unbeatable. The “Pumas” reach the highest scores in Research, Postgraduate Offerings and Internationalization, which once again rank first in the 2020 edition of the ranking.
The escorts, the Tec. De Monterrey (2nd) and the National Polytechnic Institute (3rd), inch by inch. In this version of the ranking only 0.4 pts separate them. The Monterrey institution prevails over the rest in Accreditation and Prestige, and although the IPN does not obtain first place in any of the dimensions, it is a tough fight. In Research, for example, the second place in the dimension is awarded, and in the indicator of ISI productivity appears as the best institution of the 50 ranked, with 1.38 papers per researcher.
The Metropolitan Autonomous University, the most serious contender. Its fourth position in the general list reflects the balance of its educational project along the seven dimensions evaluated, which is why it is not surprising that it is located within the first five places in most of the indicators. This year it takes the fourth place in Teaching Quality, and in the Teacher Training indicator it stands out, with 47.8%, as the third university with the best proportion of professors with a doctorate within the cloister.
These same four higher education institutions (HEIs) They have appeared in the top positions of the ranking since its first version in 2012 and, except for a castling between the IPN and the Tec in 2014, they have kept the same order.
The top 5 of this edition of the ranking completes it The College of Mexico. This institution rises two places in the general ranking, repeating its best position achieved in the 2015 version, hand in hand with its exceptional results in the Teaching Quality dimension, where they are the undisputed leaders. And this is reflected in the fact that 76.9% of the total of its professors have a doctorate as the best academic degree achieved, 100% of its professors are hired full time and are creditors of the incredible ratio of 0.5 undergraduate students per teacher or , which is the same, they have 2 teachers available for each student.
The Teaching Quality dimension, which is the one that has the most weight in the ranking, also has an interesting particularity: the first places do not belong, except for the UAM, to the first three HEIs in the general ranking. The lights in this regard are taken by other universities, all of them, that is, within the top 10 in the general list. Thus, the UDLAP (7th) repeats for the third consecutive year the second place in this dimension: 69.3% of professors with doctorates and 53.9% of full-time professors are some of their credentials. The podium is completed by Chapingo Autonomous University (9th), which in 2017 was second in this dimension and since 2018 has been third, which stands out with a remarkable 93.6% of full-time teachers.
And a little further down the Teaching Quality list appear other universities that, without belonging to the advanced group in the general ranking, are distinguished by a high proportion of full-time professors, such as U. Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro (17th), which has 94.9% of teachers hired in this condition, the Autonomous University of Mexico City (30º), which does the same with 97.7%, and the National Pedagogical University (42nd), which has 88% full-time teachers. As a result, these three universities rank 5th, 6th and 7th respectively in the dimension.
Another top ten university that always stands out for its even results is the U. of Guadalajara (6th). In this edition, as well as in the last 4 versions, it obtains the second place in Postgraduate Offer. It has 43 doctoral programs and 91 accredited master’s programs in the National Quality Postgraduate Program (PNPC) of the National Council of Science and Technology, the second highest figure, in the case of doctorates, and the first, in master’s degrees, within the 50 universities ranked by AmericaEconomy. In other words, 86% of its doctoral programs are accredited by the PNPC.
But it also obtains, for the third consecutive year, first place in the Inclusion and Diversity dimension. This year, yes, shared with the Autonomous Mexico State University (16th). Located in a geographical area of the country that, according to data collected last year by AméricaEconomía, has about 13% of the enrollment of indigenous students, the UDG has, since 1994, a special support unit for indigenous communities that has developed programs in conjunction with communities within the State of Jalisco. The main programs promoted include the Solidarity Economy, which through food sovereignty aims to activate the local economy. In addition, they have intercultural education programs for upper-middle and higher grades, legal advice for the Nahua people, public health and traditional medicine, among others.
Finally, the Meritorious Autonomous University of Puebla (8th), which is the fifth university that invests the most money through scholarships or support per student who carries out exchange abroad, and the U. Iberoamericana CDMX (10th), which is the third institution whose scholarships are awarded the most money per beneficiary student, the positions achieved in the 2019 edition of the ranking are repeated and they complete a practically unalterable select group of the top 10 IES.
Some go up, others go down
If stability characterizes the upper section of this measurement, something very different happens in the following positions. The difference in scores between the first and the tenth university evaluated is 23.1 points, and the average gap between their indexes is 2.6 points. These figures, which may seem small, are actually not so small, which is why year by year there are small changes in the top 10 of the measurement.
However, the competition becomes fiercer from position 11 to 50. In this segment the difference in scores is 19.4 points and the average gap is only 0.5 tenths, so it is not surprising movements like the ones that occur in this segment. year. It should be noted, however, a methodological change that helps to explain most of the variations in positions on the list. Since this edition, the Patents indicator in the Research dimension has lowered its weighting from 45% to 30% in favor of the Quality of Researchers indicator, which goes from weighting 10% to 25 percent. This change seeks a greater balance in the results of those universities whose research outputs do not necessarily translate into patents.
Some of the HEIs that saw a rise in positions in this new installment are the Popular Autonomous University of the State of Puebla (UPAEP), which goes from position 28 to 23 and the University of Monterrey, which rises from position 29 to 25. The UPAEP improves its position due to an increase in the number of doctors and teachers on the staff, and because it achieves greater balances in gender parity of management positions, administrative staff and students, same record that explains the rise of 4 positions at the University of Monterrey.
On the other side of the coin are the Juárez Autonomous University of Tabasco (28º), the Autonomous University of Sinaloa (31st) and the Autonomous University of Tamaulipas (38th), which are down this year. In the case of the UAT, the increase of 7 points in Research is not enough to compensate for the fall in Accreditation as a result of the decrease in the proportion of accredited undergraduate programs. The UAS and the UAT, meanwhile, are affected by the narrow differences that occur in the middle segment of the table. Although they maintain yields similar to those of the previous year, between the two the difference is only 0.9 tenths; However, they are separated by 7 places, so the small increases of their contenders are decisive in their descents.
If last year this ranking was adorned with the appearance, for the first time, of the Universidad Autónoma del Carmen (50th), this year marks the return of the Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango (45th) and the debut of the University of Quintana Roo (47º). The first stands out for having the best relationship between male and female students considering the total number of enrolled in Bachelor’s, Specialty, Master’s and Doctorate degrees, while the second has an acceptable ratio in gender parity of its teachers, senior management positions and administrative staff . Both universities obtain their best scores in Inclusion and Diversity, a dimension that is distinguished because their first positions are reached by universities that are in the middle of the general list.
How is the Ranking of the Best Universities in Mexico made?
Teaching Quality (30%): Evaluates the teaching body according to the gross number of professors according to the academic day (10%), and the ratio of these to the number of enrolled in Bachelor’s (10%); the distribution of the total teaching staff (25%) considering the following variables: full time, three quarters, part time and hour. It also evaluates the training of the same teaching body (55%), according to whether they are: academic doctorates, master’s degrees, graduates and technicians.
Research (20%): Measures the number of patents (30%) according to the relationship between patents applied for, patents granted and a “Success Rate”; the absolute annual production of ISI paper (15%), the annual productivity of ISI paper for each SNI researcher (30%), and the quality of the researchers according to their level reached, according to the SNI-CONACYT category (25 percent).
Prestige (15%): It is evaluated according to online surveys applied to the newspaper’s readership The Economist and AméricaEconomía during January-February 2020.
Internationalization (15%): It is constructed through two axes: considering the appearances in various international rankings of universities, complemented by a perception indicator based on the aforementioned survey, according to their questions on globalization and Latin American prestige (60%). The second axis (40%) corresponds to the information reported by the universities regarding double degree agreements, exchange of professors with foreign universities, exchange of students with foreign universities and the ratio between the amounts assigned to students who wish to exchange in the foreigner and the number of students benefited.
Postgraduate offer (10%): Considers the classification, for masters and doctorates, of the National Quality Postgraduate Program (PNPC) de CONACYT (80%), according to whether they are: international competition, under development, consolidated and newly created. The remaining 20% evaluate the total of postgraduate programs, both doctorate and master, and regardless of whether they are accredited or not.
Accreditation (5%): Measures the gross number (40%) of undergraduate academic programs that are accredited before the Council for the Accreditation of Higher Education (COPAES) and the proportion of these (60%) in relation to the total of undergraduate programs offered.
Inclusion and Diversity (5%): The Diversity axis takes the ratio of female, indigenous, Afro-Mexican and disabled students over the total number of undergraduate, specialty, master’s and doctoral students (25%), the gender parity between professors and senior administrative positions (25%). The Inclusion axis considers the relationship between the amount assigned for scholarships and the number of benefited students (15%), the implementation of its own aid program for indigenous students (10%), the implementation of its own financing system for costs total studies (5%), and facilities in terms of infrastructure and materials for blind people (10%) and for people with physical disabilities or reduced mobility (10 percent).
The latest data available as of January 2020 from Execum-UNAM, CONACYT-PNPC, CONACYT-SNI, COPAES and from different international rankings were used as sources, in addition to information reported by 40 universities corresponding to the academic period 2018-2019.